I have heard that South Africans are not NES now, and they have to take an English proficiency test if they wish to teach. How does the Ministry of Education define an NES? There is a teacher I know who was born in a non-English speaking country in Asia who then grew up in a non-English speaking country in Europe which gave him his first language. Then, he learned the language of his birth country. He finally moved to the U.S. as an adult where he learned English as his third language. He holds a U.S. passport and is working in the position of NES teacher. His accent is not NES, he speaks to his students in pigeon English, his spelling is awful and his grammar is even worse. If he had to take an English proficiency test, I think he would probably fail. Does holding a U.S. passport define him as an NES or has he got his teaching position under false pretenses?